मेघ/मेघवाल के धर्म और इतिहास पर

Tuesday, May 9, 2017

RAJ BOSE MEGH

मेघ/मेघवाल के धर्म ओर इतिहास पर

राजस्थान मे मेघवाल पर लगे ढेड और भाम्बी शब्द क्या है इसके पिछे क्या कारण है। कुछ इतिहासिक तथ्य

राजस्थान मे मेघवाल पर लगे ढेड और भाम्बी शब्द क्या है और यह नाम किसने दिए और क्यु दिए इसके पिछे क्या कारण है।

प्रत्क्रियाओ से स्पस्ट होता है कि इसमें कुछ न कुछ दफन है। एक प्राचीन पुस्तक है उसका नाम है- "The 

Dheds" 

मारवाड़ मर्दुमशुमारी में भी इसको अर्थाया गया है। गोकुल दस जी ने भी इनका अर्थ किया या लिखा।

Tararam Gautam आज यह शब्द अपमानजनक माना जाता है,परन्तु सद्य प्राचीन काल में कई जातियों 

का सूचक शब्द था। जिन्हें sc/st में शुमार किया। राजस्थान की sc की लिस्ट में 17 नंबर पर यह शब्द। ढेढ़ 

1971 के बाद withdraw।

Sharvan Meghwal Lakhani भाम्बी शब्द बहुत समानजनक है पर मनुवादियो को इस शब्द घृणित बना

 डाला

महात्मा बुद्ध के समय पालि भाषा बोली जाती थी ।

पालि भाषा की लिपि बम्भी थी । सम्राट अशोक ने धम्मलिपी का समान दिया था ।

ब्रह्मण लोग इस बम्भी लिपि वाली पालि भाषा से बहुत नफरत करते थे ।

ओर इस भाषा को बोलने वाले लोगो को हेय दृष्टी से देखा जाता था और घृणा वश उनको बम्भी कहा जाता था 

जो आज तक चला आ रहा है

भाम्बी शब्द मेघवँश के राजकाल इसवी सन् 150 से लेकर करीब 300 इशवी तक जो भाषा प्रचलित
 थी 
- जिनके कई शिला लेख भारतीय पुरातन विभाग ने खोज निकाले है - उस भाषा को " बाम्भी " कहते थे 

| यह मेघो की मूल प्राचीन भाषाथी जिससे भाम्बी कहलाये | ओर ढेड नाम का प्रचलन करीब 12 वी 

शताबदी ते आसपास सामन्ति ठाकुरो ने प्रचलित किया था ढेड का अर्थ मुर्ख होता है - उस समय मेघो 

ने सामन्ति ठाकुरो की बैठ बेगारी हाली प्रथा से पिछडे होने के कारण उनको जातीय अपशब्द के रूप मे 

यह घ्रणिय नाम ( ढेड ) शब्द प्रयोग किया था परन्तु ध्यान रहै .......... आधुनिक भारतीय सविधान

 निमार्ण के बाद आजाद भारत मे इस घ्रणित जातीय शब्द का प्रयोग करना - सवैधानिक दण्डनिय 

अपराध है अत: कोई भी निबुदि जन मुर्खता से मखोलता पूर्वक यह शब्द का प्रयोग करता है तो उनके 

खिलाफ कानूनी कार्यवाही हो सकती है मध्यकालीन सामन्तकाल मे जब धार्मिक खेचातान थी - तब 

मेघो ने अपनी अध्यात्मधारा को मेघ महाधर्म सिध्दो की परमपरा से सजोये रखा - उन्होनो ब्राहमणी

 वैदिक पदति को नही माना - वे अलख उपासी थे | तब सर्वण जाती के लोगो ने एक ओखाणा प्रचलित

 किया कि | डरता ढेड बैगार सु ,लियो भेख रो आलो | अलख नाम सत है , झुठो नाम है मोलो || कबीर ने 
उनको कडा जवाब देते हुए कहा था यह तन ढुँडी रूप है ,इणमे रहे सो ढेड | आसक्ति तन मे रहे , ढुँडे सो 

ही ढेड || कह कबीर सुनो भाई साधो - एक शब्द रो भेद | ढेड शब्द रो अर्थ ना , जाणै वे भादु है लेड ||

Tararam Gautam ऊपर एक अत्यंत पिछड़ी जाति के एक प्रतिभावान ने क्या खूब कही-"सतजुग 

में 
रिखिया---रोफल मांडी।" क्या यह इनके प्रतिकार आन्दोलन को बयाँ नहीं करता। मारवाड़ी में रोफल 

का अर्थ"विद्रोह या प्रतिकार" भी होता है। दूसरा यह स्पस्ट है की इंद्रा के सत्तासीन होने तक उनका यह 

आन्दोलन जीवंत था। thanks mr suthar for the valuable information . चलते - चलते इस 

पर भी विचार कर ले-

"छौळणििया सेल़ा फिरे, मत बांध भरम री पाळ।

जादम सूं हेत मिलियो, छबिसों कर दिया कंगाळ।"

प्रश्न यह है कि यह तथाकथित मध्य वर्ग आपके साथ होने के बजाय अधिकार संपन्न वर्ग के साथ 

क्यों खड़ा होता हुआ दिखता है। इसकी पड़ताल करने पर कई रहस्योद्घाटन होते है। उन सब पर चर्चा 

अपेक्षित नहीं। एक उदहारण देकर में इसके समाज मनोविज्ञान पर डॉ बाबा साहेब के मतानुसार 

विचार रखूँगा।

मारवाड़ में एक पीछड़ी जाति है जिसे सुथार या खाती भी कहते है। रियासत काल में खातियों की 

औरतों को नाक बिन्दाने का अधिकार नहीं था। वे नाक नहीं बिन्दाती थी। पांव में चांदी की सांटे और 

हाथ में बाजूबंद नहीं पहन सकती थी। वे कलियों का घाघरा भी नहीं पहन सकती थी, जबकि मारवाड़ 

में 
मेघवाल औरत के पहनावे में ये आम प्रचलित था। सांटे या कड़ियाँ तथा बाजूबंद या चूड़े के बिना उनके 

विवाह की रस्म "समेला-पडला" भी नहीं होता था। कलीदार घाघरा मारवाड़ में मेघवालों के अलावा 

राजपूत और कुछ गिनी-चुनी जातियों का पहरावा था।

ओढ़ने-पहनने में इतना भेद् क्यो रहा? इस पर उनका विचार या मंथन नहीं जायेगा, बल्कि किसी 

मेघवाल की उन्नति देखेगा तो उसमे यह भावना जागृत होगी कि विगत में ये लोग निम्न जाती में थे 

अब पढ़ लिखकर हमारी जाति-स्तर से ऊपर नहीं उठ जाय और हिन्दू समाज उनको हमारी जाति से

 ऊँचा नहीं मान ले। इस तरह के विविध विचार ऐसी मध्य जातियों के मानस शास्त्र को घेरे रहते है।

 उनका ध्यान अन्याय परक व्यवस्था की ओर नहीं जाकर निराशा की ओर हो जाता है और वे आपके 

साथी बनने के बजाय आपके आन्दोलन में रोड़ा बनते है।

डॉ आंबेडकर इसे इन वर्गों की नासमझी या अज्ञानता कहते है। और यह बात मैं सत्य या तथ्यपरक 

इसलिए मनाता हूँ कि सुथार और सुथारों जैसी कई जातियां दूसरे प्रदेशों में sc में है, जहाँ उन्हें sc का

 फायदा मिलता है। तो उन्हें उस हेतु sc के साथ होकर काम करना चाहिए, परन्तु विरोध में करते है। 

इसका मनोविज्ञान यह है कि ये ब्राह्मणेत्तर समाजों के लोग अंधी परंपरा के वजह से छुआ-छूत बुरा है 

या अच्छा, अछुत्प्पन भोगी लोगों के मुद्दे ठीक है या गलत यह नहीं सोचते हूए, उनके साथ हमदर्दी न 

रखते हुए वे अपने झूठे बड्डपन के फरेब में आपके विपरीत खड़े हो जाते है। अनाचारी लोग अछूतपन 

को बुरा मानते है। लेकिन सूने बड्डपन के कारण स्वार्थ में फंसकर अपने ही विचारों के अनुकूल 

आचरण नहीं करते। उन्हें मालूम होते हुए भी अंधी परंपरा और स्वार्थ की वजह से आपकी बातों का उन 

पर असर नहीं होता। वे इसी मिथ्या के कारण आपकी पोस्टों पर भी उट-पटांग लिखते है।

आपको इससे विचलित नहीं होना चाहिए। जो वे कहते या लिखते है, उसे ही अपनी ताकत बनाये और 

साथ ही उनको राह पर लाऩे के लिए उपाय भी सोचने चाहिए। सबसे महत्वपूर्ण उपाय यह हो सकता है

 कि ऐसे अज्ञानी लोगों को सोच-विचार के लिए मजबूर करे। यह एकदम नहीं हो सकता है। हमेशा 

जिस रास्ते पर चले है, उसे बाधाजन्य बनाये वगेर आप यह नहीं कर सकते। जिस प्रकार से वे आपके 

मार्ग में बाधा बनते है वैसे ही आपको भी बाधक बनना पड़ेगा। दूसरा कोई चारा नहीं।

इस मनोविज्ञान का कारण आप ऐसे समझे- अछूतपन की परंपरा या जाति-पांति का भेदभाव वह 

रास्ता है, जिस पर शदियों से हिन्दू समाज की विभीन्न जातियां चलती रही है। आप इस बात को 

भलीभांति अपने अनुभव से जान सकते है कि किसी भी प्रचलित रास्ते के परंपरागत होने के कारण 

उस रास्ते पर चलने वाला यात्री आँख मूंद कर उस रस्ते पर चल देगा। वह सीधा और सरल लगता है,

 उसे दूसरों से भी पूछने की जरुरत नहीं होती है परन्तु जब उसी रस्ते में कोई बाधा आ जाए यथा उसी 

रस्ते से कई रास्ते निकलते हुए दिखते हो तो वह रुक जायेगा, हड़बड़ा जायेगा और वह यह सोचने के 

लिए मजबूर होगा कि इनमें से कौनसा रास्ता उसे सही गन्तव्य स्थान पर पहुंचाएगा। इससे साफ है 

कि तब तक कोई भी आदमी अपने परंपरागत रास्ते के भले बुरे के सोचने के लिए तैयार नहीं होगा ,

 जब तक उसमे बाधा न हो?

Megs. Connected with the Takkas by a similar inferiority of social position is the

 tribe of Megs, who form a large part of the population of Riyasi, Jammu, and 

Aknur. According to the annals of the Jammu Rajas, the ancestors of Gulab

 Singh were two Rajput brothers, who, after the defeat of Prithi Raj, settled on the 

bank of the Tohi or Tohvi River amongst the poor race of cultivators called Megs.

 Mr. Gardner calls them " a poor race of low caste," but more numerous than the 

Takkas.t In another place he ranges them amongst the lowest class of outcasts ; 

but this is quite contrary to my information, and is besides inconsis tent with his

 own description of them as " cultivators." They are but little inferior, if not equal, 

to Takkas. I have failed in tracing their name in the middle ages, but I believe that 

we safely identify them with the Mekei of Aryan, who inhabited the banks of the

 River Saranges near its confluence with the Hydraotes.J This river has not yet 

been identified with certainty, but as it is mentioned immediately after the

 Hyphasis or Bias, it should be the same as the Satlaj. In Sauskrit the Satlaj is 

called Satadru, or the " hundred channeled," a name which is fairly represented 

by Ptolemy's Zaradrus, and also by Pliny's Hesidrus, as the Sanskrit Sata 

becomes Hata in many of the W. Dialects. In its upper course the commonest 

name is Satrudr or Satudr, a spoken form of Satudra, which is only a corrup tion 

of the Sanskrit Satadru. By many Brahmans, how ever, Satudra is considered to

 be the proper name, although from the meaning which they give to it of " 

hundred- bellied," the correct form would be Satodra. Now Arrian's Saranges is

 evidently connected with these various readings, as Satdnga means the '* 

hundred divisions," or " hundred parts," in allusion to the numerous channels 

which the Satlaj takes just as it leaves the hills. According to this identification

 the Mekei, or ancient Megs, must have in habited the banks of the Satlaj at the

 time of Alexander's invasion. In confirmation of this position, I can cite the name 

of Megarsus, which Dionysius Periegetes gives to the Satlaj, along with the 

epithets of great and rapid.* This name is changed to Cymander by Aoienus, but

 as Priscian preserves it unaltered, it seems probable that we ought to read 

Mycander, which would assimilate it with the original name of Dionysius. But 

whatever may be the true reading of Avienus, it is most probable that we have 

the name of the Meg tribe preserved in the Megarsus River of Dionysius. On 

comparing the two names together, I think it possible that the original reading

 may have been Megandros, which would be equivalent to the Sanskrit Megadru,

 or river of the Megs. Now in this very part of the Satlaj, where the river leaves the

 hills, we find the important town of Makhowdl, the town of the Makh or Magh 

tribe, an inferior class of cultivators, who claim descent from Raja Mukh- tesar, a 

Sarsuti Brahman and King of Mecca ! " From him sprang Sahariya, who with his 

son Sal was turned out of Arabia, and migrated to the Island of Pundri; even

 tually they reached Mahmudsar, in Barara, to the west of Bhatinda, where they 

colonised seventeen villages. Thence they were driven forth, and, after sundry 

migrations, are now settled in the districts of Patiala, Shahabad, Thanesar,

 Ambala, Mustafabad, Sadhaora, and Muzafarnagar."* From this account we learn

 that the earliest location of the Maghs was to the westward of Bhatinda, that is,

 on the banks of the Satlaj. At what period they were driven from this locality they

 know not ; but if, as seems highly pro bable, the Magiaus whom Timur 

encountered on the banks of the Jumna and Ganges were only Maghs, their eject 

ment from the banks of the Satlaj must have occurred at a comparatively early

 period. The Megs of the Chenab have a tradition that they were driven from the

 plains by the early Muhammadans, a statement which we may refer either to the

 first inroads of Mahmud, in the beginning of the eleventh century, or to the final 

occupation of Lahor by his immediate successors. 3. Other

* Orljis DcsLTi1itio, V. 1145.

• Smith's Rcv1ning Family of Lahor, p. 232, and Appendix p. xxix. In the text he 

m.'iti* the " Tukkers" Hindus, but in the Appendix he calls the " Tuk" a " brahman 

caste." The two names are, however, most probably not the same. t Ibid, pp. 232,

 201, and Appendix p. xxix.

 A Cunningham describe Meghs as under in Archaeological Survey Of India. 

Volume-2 ( four reports during the years 1862-63-64-65) pp11 to 13. Published in

 1871

Megs.

" Connected with the Takkas by a similar inferiority of social position is the tribe 

of Megs, who form a large part of the population of Riyasi, Jammu, and Aknur.

 According to the annals of the Jammu Rajas, the ancestors of Gulab Singh were

 two Rajput brothers, who, after the defeat of Prithi Raj, settled on the bank of the 

Tohi or Tohvi River amongst the poor race of cultivators called Megs. Mr. Gardner 

calls them " a poor race of low caste," but more numerous than the Takkas.t In 

another place he ranges them amongst the lowest class of outcasts ; but this is 

quite contrary to my information, and is besides inconsis tent with his own 

description of them as " cultivators." They are but little inferior, if not equal, to 

Takkas. I have failed in tracing their name in the middle ages, but I believe that we 

safely identify them with the Mekei of Aryan, who inhabited the banks of the 

River Saranges near its confluence with the Hydraotes.J This river has not yet 

been identified with certainty, but as it is mentioned immediately after the 

Hyphasis or Bias, it should be the same as the Satlaj. In Sauskrit the Satlaj is 

called Satadru, or the " hundred channeled," a name which is fairly represented 

by Ptolemy's Zaradrus, and also by Pliny's Hesidrus, as the Sanskrit Sata 

becomes Hata in many of the W. Dialects. In its upper course the commonest 

name is Satrudr or Satudr, a spoken form of Satudra, which is only a corrup tion 

of the Sanskrit Satadru. By many Brahmans, how ever, Satudra is considered to

 be the proper name, although from the meaning which they give to it of " 

hundred- bellied," the correct form would be Satodra. Now Arrian's Saranges is 

evidently connected with these various readings, as Satdnga means the '* 

hundred divisions," or " hundred parts," in allusion to the numerous channels 

which the Satlaj takes just as it leaves the hills. According to this identification 

the Mekei, or ancient Megs, must have in habited the banks of the Satlaj at the 

time of Alexander's invasion. In confirmation of this position, I can cite the name

 of Megarsus, which Dionysius Periegetes gives to the Satlaj, along with the 

epithets of great and rapid.* This name is changed to Cymander by Aoienus, but

 as Priscian preserves it unaltered, it seems probable that we ought to read 

Mycander, which would assimilate it with the original name of Dionysius. But 

whatever may be the true reading of Avienus, it is most probable that we have 

the name of the Meg tribe preserved in the Megarsus River of Dionysius. On

 comparing the two names together, I think it possible that the original reading

 may have been Megandros, which would be equivalent to the Sanskrit Megadru,

 or river of the Megs. Now in this very part of the Satlaj, where the river leaves the 

hills, we find the important town of Makhowdl, the town of the Makh or Magh 

tribe, an inferior class of cultivators, who claim descent from Raja Mukh- tesar, a 

Sarsuti Brahman and King of Mecca ! " From him sprang Sahariya, who with his 

son Sal was turned out of Arabia, and migrated to the Island of Pundri; even 

tually they reached Mahmudsar, in Barara, to the west of Bhatinda, where they 

colonised seventeen villages. Thence they were driven forth, and, after sundry 

migrations, are now settled in the districts of Patiala, Shahabad, Thanesar, 

Ambala, Mustafabad, Sadhaora, and Muzafarnagar."* From this account we learn 

that the earliest location of the Maghs was to the westward of Bhatinda, that is,

 on the banks of the Satlaj. At what period they were driven from this locality they

 know not ; but if, as seems highly pro bable, the Magiaus whom Timur 

encountered on the banks of the Jumna and Ganges were only Maghs, their 

eject ment from the banks of the Satlaj must have occurred at a comparatively 

early period. The Megs of the Chenab have a tradition that they were driven from 

the plains by the early Muhammadans, a statement which we may refer either to 

the first inroads of Mahmud, in the beginning of the eleventh century, or to the

 final occupation of Lahor by his immediate successors." 3. Other

* Orljis DcsLTi1itio, V. 1145.

• Smith's Rcv1ning Family of Lahor, p. 232, and Appendix p. xxix. In the text he

 m.'iti* the " Tukkers" Hindus, but in the Appendix he calls the " Tuk" a " brahman 

caste." The two names are, however, most probably not the same. t Ibid, pp. 232,

 201, and Appendix p. xxix.

रामसा कडेला मेघवँशी जोधपुर "दैनिक भाष्कर "'अखबार मे - 5 जुलाई 2003 पृष्ठ सॅख्या 13 मे 

देखिये -
"लुप्त हो गयी बाम्भी की परम्परा"

इस लेख से स्पष्ट है कि मध्यकालीन सामन्तकाल मे मेघो को "गाव भाँभी" के नाम से नियुक्त किया 

जाता था ।

जो गाव मे सूचना देने का सॅचार माध्यम के रुप मे नि:स्वार्थ सेवा प्रदान करते थे ।

चाहै गाव की बात हो , राजस्व सम्बन्धि सूचना हो या हाकिमो द्वारा किये गये एलान अथवा गांव पर 

आये सॅकट से अवगत करवाना हो ,

इनकी सूचना ही महत्वपूर्ण मानी जाती थी । दूर बसी ढाणियो को सूचित करने मे तो समय लगता था । 
अतः ये बाँभी हेला विधि से हर घर मे सूचना पहूचाने मे पारन्गत थे ।..........

.........परिवारो को आपस मे जोङकर समाज बनाने मे इन बाँभियो का महत्वपूर्ण योगदान रहा 



Tararam Gautam Archaeological survey of western India की जिल्द में पेज संख्या 196 

में इनके बारे में जो लिखा है,उसे नीचे हुबहू दे रहा हूँ-

"The Dheds, the lowest caste among the Hindus found in every town and village. 

From their nukhs, or family names, many of them appear to have been Origionaly 

Rajput descent, for instance, we find among solankis, chavadas, jhalas, vaghelas, 

& c. The Hindus consider themselves polluted by their touch. Their profession is 

that of weavers, cobblers, wood-splitters, and tanners. They also take the hides 

and entrails from the carcasses of dead animals. THOSE WHO SERVE AS GUIDE 

TO GOVERNMENT OFFICERS ARE ALSO CALLED MEGHVALS"

Ref: Archaeological Survey of Westen India: Report on the Antiquities of 

Kathiawad and Kuchh,1874-75. Published in 1876, India Museum, London

ऊपर रामसा के फोटो कमेन्ट के साथ इसे समझे। ढेड- हिन्दुओं में सबसे निम्न जाति, जो प्रत्येक 

कसबे और गांव में है। उनके नख या पारिवारिक नामों से प्रतीत होता है कि ये मूल राजपूतों के वंशज 

है। यथा उनमे सोलकी, चावड़ा, झाला, वाघेला और अन्य पाए जाते है। उनके छू जाने/स्पर्श हो जाने पर

 हिन्दू अपने को दूषित/ अपवित्र हुआ मनाता है। उनके व्यवसाय/धंधा में कपड़ा बुनना, जूते बनाना, 

लकड़ियो को काटना और चमडा रंगना है। मरे हुए पशुओं के शवों से खाल भी उतारते है। वे जो राज/

सरकार के अधिकारीयों के गाइड के रूप में सेवा करते है, उन्हें मेघवाल भी कहते है।

इससे यह स्पस्ट हो जाना चाहिए कि यह शब्द अंग्रेजों ने नहीं दिया। हिन्दुओं ने ही दिया। आधुनिक 

समय में अपनी झेंप मिटाने के लिए वे सचेष्ट ऐसा करते है। अंग्रेजो को इस शब्द की कैसी समझ थी, 

वह ऊपर के विवरण से स्पष्ट है।

Glossary of Indian terms में इसके बारे में निम्न विवरण मिलाता है- "Dherh- Name of a 

caste in those provinces, chiefly in the saugar territory. The name is applied to

 Bhangis and Chamars.* They eat dead animals, clean the skins, and sell them to 

chamars. In the Nagpur territory they have acquired some consideration from

 their employment as Dherhs."

"In the Deccan they are said to be the same as the Mahrs of Maharattas(journal 

of R.A.S p224) - see also the printed glossary under Dheda and Dheyr"

"In the Western Provinces, though they are now not often found in any numbers,

 they appear to have left the remembrance of their name, for it is a common term

 to call man a 'bara Dherh' or a low caste fellow"

"In Rajputana, Dherhs will not eat hogs, either tame or wild: the latter they hold in

 great abomination, not withstanding their Rajput masters look upon them as a 

luxury." Pp 80-81.
-------------------
*footnote- "this word is spelled धेड in Molesworth's Marathi Dictionary, and I think 

this is more correct then in text. But so much uncertainty exists as to the spelling 

of Hindi that, in absence of a conclave of pandits, I can't venture to decide.

 Wilson, both in "Glossary....."and "sel. works" i 186, spells it ढेढ़- "

Reference: Memoirs on the History, folk-lore and Distribution of Races of North

 Western Provinces of india" supplementary Glossary of Indian Terms. Volume- 

6, by H. M. Elliot, ed by J. Beams, London,1869. जय भीम 

Posted by Raj Bose 

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Megh Culture - मेघ संस्कृतिमेघवीर मिँजलदास उर्फ मिजल्या1857 की क्रान्ति- मेघों का विद्रोहRead the history analytically--- Brahmans and Kasim----सिंध का सबसे प्राचीन और प्रामाणिक इतिहास "चचनामा" माना जाता है।Know your history-2Know your history-मारवाड़ और मेघMegh: An ancient race a.Coins of Azes Meg. महाराजा अजोस् मेग के सिक्के!Know your struggle मारवाड़ में बेगारी उन्मूलन आंदोलन और उमेदाराम कटारियाAll India Census-2011 : Megh/Meghaval... 1Know your history CHAPTER XXIVRamdevMy Gellaryअपने इतिहास को जानो ----ताराराम

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मेघ आर्यों से पूर्व के आदि-निवासियों के वंशज है। काश्मीर: देश और संस्कृति पृ.96

Monday, May 8, 2017



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Historians tell-4 Sent by Sh. Tararam via email Know your history-42

Saturday, April 29, 2017

Historians tell-4
Sent by Sh. Tararam via email
Know your history-42
बॉम्बे में रहने वाले मेघवालों पर 1936 में एक शोधपूर्ण अध्ययन प्रकाशित हुआ था। श्री बी. एच. मेहता द्वारा पीएच. डी. उपाधि हेतु बॉम्बे यूनिवर्सिटी में प्रस्तुत किये गए- "The Social and Economic conditions of the Meghval Untouchables of Bombay city (with special reference to the community centre at Valpakhadi)" शोध प्रबन्ध का प्रकाशन दो भागों में हुआ। यह एक महत्त्व पूर्ण शोध था जो आजादी से पहले मेघवालों पर हुआ। इसमें मेघों के बारे में ऐतिहासिक विश्लेषण है एवं इसमें विश्लेषित तथ्यों को सर्वेक्षण के द्वारा भी पुष्ट किया गया। जिसे पुस्तक में 547 पृष्ठों में दर्ज किया गया।
संदर्भित पुस्तक का सार-संक्षेप (Abstract) निम्नवत है:
Methodology- Historical/Survey method.
"The thesis has been divided into two volumes containing ten chapters in all, in which the author has discussed the social and economic aspects of Meghvals such as their origin, the reasons for their migrations to Bombay, their social organizations, such as marriages, family, caste panchayat and their social disabilities, their economic life, income and indebtedness, housing, health, education, and has ended with suggestions for solving their socio-economic problems. The author has elaborately discussed all these problems in most lucid manner with numerous graphs, charts, diagrams, and pictures, giving a graphic idea of their social and economic life."
The author has divided untouchables in two groups on languages - 1.Marathi and 2.Gujarati. The author has selected Gujarati speaking group of Meghvals. With other reasons he records following reasons for his study: first, the Meghvals are the most numerous of the untouchales from Gujarat. Secondly, the Valpakhadi was the locality in which the largest number of Meghval families have congregated together; besides, it has within its area of the chief temple of the Meghvals- the religious headquarters of the community. Thirdly, the centre also claims within its boundaries the largest number of children, offering suitable opportunities for a detailed study of the problems connected with primary education."
"The study refers only to the community known as the Dhers who call themselves Meghvals. They belong to different villages of Kathiawar. In all, the author has collected data from 282 families consisting of 1649 persons, 833 males and 816 females."
Origin of Meghwals- Megh Rishi From Punjab-
"About the origin of the Meghvals the author tells us that the Dhers from Kathiawar always calls themselves Meghvals; they claim to be descendants of Megh, a Rishi (saint) who lived in Punjab, and the word Val means descendants."
They were called Kathi in Saurashtra- Author also inform us that "some of them claim that they occupied Saurashtra along with Kathis and were later thrown in the background by the Mohammedans."
Occupation-
"They also claim to have been weavers by occupation. In their native places they were mostly engaged as field labourers only during cutting season." "The majority of the untouchables of Kathiawar lived in condition of humiliations and social and economic boycott at the hands of the high caste Hindus for many centuries."
Migration from Punjab to Kathiawar and Kathiawar to Bombay-
Author reveals that these Meghwals are migrated, first, from Punjab to Kathiawar and second, from Kathiawar to Bombay. The author tells- "under such servile conditions with an environment against their well-being, and the burdon of social tyranny which deprived these people of their fundamental rights as human being is no wonder that Meghvals should migrate to places where they may be at least left alone to eke out their livelihood as human beings."
"The Meghvals who migrated to Bombay belong to the important sections of the Kathiawar, viz, Chorasi, Banseth, and Sol, Amreli prant and Valaki Desh."
The author reveals that- "In order to organise its health and sanitary in 1882, it was felt necessary by the Bombay Municipality to recruit conserving staff, for various conservancy functions. The local supply of labour proved inadequate, so the Health Department of Bombay Municipality secured most of its labour from from Kathiawar in Gujarat and Konkan in Maharashtra. This gave opportunity to the Meghvals of Kathiawar, who were living a miserable life of utter poverty in their villages, to migrate to Bombay in large numbers to seek employment in Bombay Municipality."
Marriage and Divorce-
The author stated that "Amongst the Meghvals marriage is a union regulated by traditions and sanctified by religion. Marriage is regarded with awe and reverence, and is considered binding till death, unless the wedlock is terminated by divorce. The author observes, in spite of this seemingly binding nature of marriage, it is more or less free; for sometimes it is such a transient that it can be easily terminated at the wish of either parties."
"Divorce is common among Meghvals. The most usual cause of divorce is differences between husband and wife and members of her husband's family, excessive ill-treatment on the part of husband or immorality of the wife. In case of divorce the girl's father has to deposit a sum of Rs.50 to the caste Panch and surrender the bride price. In respect of grant of divorce, the voice of the Panch prevails and the decision is more or less binding on both the parties."
Family-
"The Meghvals family is patriarchal. The Hindu joint family prevails among them. The women is respected in the family and she is supposed to work to augment family income. The birth of a male child is preferred to a female child. The infirms and old are protected by the family."
Livelihood-
"The majority of them earn their livelihood by working in one or other service of the Health Department of the Bombay Municipality... their economic condition is very poor and their present employment does not give better scope for improvement in this respect. Hence, there is a general trend among the younger generation, with the growth of education, to leave their present occupations."
Indebtedness and other issues have also been discussed by the author with facts and figures with suggesting remedial course of action to be taken by government as well as by the community. The auther tells that total indebtedness of 282 households was 195510 or 325.8 per household. Indebtedness is the economic death-grip and then it does not fail to seize the inheritor. Many a young man pays with reluctance the supposed debts of his father, and this puts an end to the solvency of his house.
While discussing the house problems of Meghvals, the author tells us that they live in most unhygienic conditions, "out of total number of 343 families at Valpakhadi, only eleven joint families occupied two separate tenements, not necessarily adjoining the rest. Thus there is an average number of 4.7 persons per room." The most important causes of overcrowding amongst them were shortage of housing arrangements and the strange mentality of the community to live together and also they preferred to live in Chawls owned by the Municipality, as it was easier to obtain employment in the Health Department for their sons, daughters and other relatives, if they remained in close contact with Ward Officers."
Considering a literate person as one who is able to read and write his own name, the author tells us that percentage of literacy comes to 37.4% for males and 6.3% in females.
Social Organizations-
The author has also described various social organizations prevailing among the Meghvals of Bombay. The author tells us- " though the social institutions of Meghvals may have failed to great extent to serve the interest of the community, they have always been ready to assist progressive and reformist measures" and he adds: "The power of tradition and custom is weak, and is increasingly diminishing day by day. There is hardly any organised orthodox sector amongst Meghvals. Whatever opposition exists, is immediately put down by a vocal and aggressive youth section." He further states that- "the greatest hope for the future welfare of Meghvals lies in this progressive section (youth) of the community."
Religion-
About their religion author says that, “Their religious beliefs and forms of worship appeared highly complex and contradictory. It is mixture of magic, animism, and worship of deities and Pirs (Ramdevji Pir). The worship of matas is also widespread among them. The idol of Vishnu takes the most honoured place, together with the idol of Krishna in the Laxminarayan Temple."
"Their belief in animistic spirits and need for their propitiation has given rise to medicine-man, known as bhuvo. One who practices black magic is called Judiyan. There were at least eight medicine men among them. All of them was considerable. They have also there priest to perform various religious ceremonies like other Hindus."
"They celebrate usual pomp and gaiety all the Hindu such as Navratri, Diwali, Gokul Ashtami, Holi and so on. The month of Shrawan was held sacred by them and they observed fasts on Mondays."
Conversons-
"The author narrates the circumstances under which some Meghvals were converted to Christianity by the Methodist Church and says that it was difficult to determine the total number of Meghval Christian families in Bombay. ...There were other forces also at work to convert them into other religions such as Islam and Buddhism but majority of them in spite of their social degradation in Hindu society, prefer to remain in Hindu fold."
Degradedness and Disabilities of the Community-
The author has also discussed various prohibitions and disabilities imposed upon the Meghval community in length and observed in this regard that the treatment received by the Meghvals during the many years of social tyranny would have deteriorated the moral of any community, or it might have driven them to open revolt in order to secure their emancipation. But this caste seem to have suffered its humiliation in silence.
He has also discussed contemporary social reform activities in his book and concluded with certain suggestions.
I think that it is more precious and authentic work carried out in the beginning of twentieth century from historical, social, economic and political point of view,
Reference: "The social and Economic conditions of the Meghval Untouchables of Bombay City." (Two Volumes)
Author: B.H. Mehta
Pages: 547
Publisher: Bombay University, Bombay, 1936


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History of Jammu and Kashmir and MEGHS

Know your history-40
(Frederic Drew की पुस्तक के पृष्ठ 55-57 तक का अनुवाद)
अंत में वे जातियाँ आती हैं जिन्हें हम अंग्रेज़ सामान्यतः हिंदुओं की 'निम्न जातियाँ' कहते हैं लेकिन ऐसा किसी हिंदू के मुँह से नहीं सुना जाता; उन्हें हिंदू के तौर पर कोई मान्यता नहीं दी जाती; उन्हें हिंदुओं में नीचा स्थान भी प्राप्त नहीं है. उनके नाम हैं मेघ और डूम और मेरा विचार है कि इनमें धियार नामक लोगों को भी शामिल करना चाहिए जिनका पेशा लोहा पिघलाना है और जिन्हें आमतौर पर उनके साथ ही वर्गीकृत किया जाता है.
ये कबीले आर्यों से पहले आने वाले कबीलों के वंशज हैं जो पहाड़ों पर रहने वाले थे जो हिंदुओं और आर्यों द्वारा देश पर कब्ज़ा करने के बाद दास बना लिए गए थे; आवश्यक नहीं था कि वे किसी एक व्यक्ति के ही दास हों, वे समुदाय के लिए निम्न (कमीन) और गंदगी का कार्य करते थे. उनकी स्थिति आज भी वैसी है. वे शहरों और गाँवों में सफाई का कार्य करते हैं*. (* मेरा विचार है कि धियारों का रोज़गार ऐसा कम है कि वे जातीय रूप से मेघों और डूमों से जुड़े हैं.) डूमों और मेघों की संख्या जम्मू में अधिक है और वे पूरे देश, जो निचली पहाड़ियों और उससे आगे की ऊँची पहाड़ियों, में बिखरे हैं. वे ईँट बनानें, चारकोल बर्निंग और झाड़ू-पोंछा जैसे रोज़गार से थोड़ी कमाई कर लेते हैं. इन्हें प्राधिकारियों द्वारा किसी भी समय ऐसे कार्य के लिए बुलाया जा सकता है जिसमें कोई अन्य हाथ नहीं लगाता.
केवल उनके द्वारा किए जाने वाले ऐसे श्रम की श्रेणी के कारण ही ऐसा है कि उन्हें एकदम अस्वच्छ गिना जाता है; वे जिस चीज़ को छूते हैं वह गंदी प्रदूषित हो जाती है; कोई हिंदू सपने में भी नहीं सोच सकता कि वह उनके द्वारा लाए गए ऐसे बर्तन से पानी पीएगा जिस बर्तन को एक सोंटी के किनारे पर लटका कर ही क्यों न लाया गया हो. जिस गलीचे पर अन्य बैठै हों वहाँ इन्हें कभी आने नहीं दिया जाता है. यदि संयोग से उन्हें कोई कागज़ देना हो तो हिंदू उस कागज़ को ज़मीन पर गिरा देगा और वहाँ से वह उसे ख़ुद ही उठाएगा; वह उन्हें उनके हाथ से नहीं लेगा.
मेघों और डूमों के शारीरिक गुण भी हैं जो उन्हें अन्य जातियों से अलग करते हैं. उनका रंग सामान्यतः अधिक साँवला होता है जबकि इन क्षेत्रों में उनका रंग हल्का गेहुँआ होता है, इनका रंग कभी इतना साँवला भी हो सकता है जितना दिल्ली से नीचे के भारतवासियों में है. मेरा विचार है कि आम तौर पर इनके अंग छोटे होते हैं और कद भी तनिक छोटा होता है. अन्य जातियों की अपेक्षा इनके चेहरे पर कम दाढ़ी होती है और डोगरों के मुकाबले इनका चेहरा-मोहरा काफी निम्न प्रकार का है, हालाँकि इसके अपवाद हैं जिसका कारण निस्संदेह रक्तमिश्रण है, क्योंकि दिलचस्प है कि अन्य के साधारण दैनिक जीवन से इनका अलगाव उस कभी-कभार के अंतर्संबंधों को नहीं रोकता जो अन्य जातियों को आत्मसात करता है.
डूमों के मुकाबले मेघों की स्थिति कुछ वैसी है जैसे हिंदुओं में ब्राह्मणों की, उन्हें न केवल थोड़ा ऊँचा माना जाता है बल्कि उन्हें कुछ विशेष आदर के साथ देखा जाता है.
जम्मू-कश्मीर के महाराजा (गुलाब सिंह) ने इन निम्न जातियों की स्थिति में सुधार के लिए कार्य किया और सैंकड़ों लोगों को सिपाही के तौर पर खुदाई और खनन कार्य के लिए भर्ती किया. इन्होंने कुछ नाम कमाया है, वास्तव में युद्ध के समय ऐसा व्यवहार किया है कि उन्हें सम्मान मिला है, उच्चतर जातियों के समान ही अपने साहस का परिचय दिया है और सहनशक्ति में तो उनसे आगे निकले हैं.
इस प्रकार हम देखते हैं कि डूगर के अधिसंख्य लोग हिंदू हैं जिनमें पुराने कबीलों के भी लोग हैं. वे किस धर्म से संबंधित हैं यह नहीं कहा जा सकता........
(From 'The Jummoo and Kashmir Territories, A Geographical Account' by Frederic Drew, 1875)

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Historians tell-3
Know your history-34
'Global Encyclopedia of the North Indian Dalits- Ethnography' में उत्तर भारत विशेषकर जम्मू-कश्मीर आदि क्षेत्रों में बसे मेघों के बारे में निम्नलिखित विवरण है-
"MEGH"
Demography-
"The megh claim an ancient origin and they seem to be the original inhabitants of the Jammu region and the owners of land in this tract. They are distributed in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, HimachalPrades, Chandigarh and punjab...They are predominantly found in Rural Areas. Their major concentration is in Jammu, Rabisinghpura, and Akhnoor tehsil of Jammu. They are also concentrated in Ambala, Kurukshetra, Rohtak and Hissar in Haryana. They are also found in all districts of Punjab but their major concentration is in the district of Gurdaspur and Ferojpur. The Megh in Himachal Pradesh are mostly confined to lower hill ranges of Kangra, adjoining Punjab and to some extent to the Chamba district."
Settlement:
"The Meghs are inhabitants of the plains and hills between the Ravi and Chenab rivers, except Akhnur which lies to the west of the latter river. Over 60% of them live in the fertile plain irrigated by canals and kuhis (water ducts), whereas 20% of inhabit the high forest covered tract to north and northeast of Jammu. They are found distributed over the dry kandiliaa also. Inspite of difference of natural environment, there is practically no difference in their life pattern."
Dress Ornament:
"The members of community do not wear any distinctive dress or marker but like general Hindu Classes-----------.The state government has now accorded them constitutional status of a Scheduled Caste and they have been enjoying special benifit and privileges under the provisions-------------"
Food and Drinks:
"The Megh, except their sub caste Basith, used to eat flesh of dead animals, but by a contract or decision signed in 1879 through the influence of their Guru of Keran in Jammu tehsil, who had been religious head of the Megh community, they pledged total abestation from it. A breach of this agreement made a man liable to pay Rs.25/ to the government, Rs.5/- to the head of village and a some fixed according to the means of offender, as a penalty to the biradari. In default of payment, he was liable to be excluded from the Megh community. With this change, the Meghs are becoming vegetarian like other Hindu communities. Their womenfolk usually, and men on certain occasions avoid taking non-vegetarian diet. Rice and wheat and makkie (Maize) from their staple food, pulses, particularly mah and masur and all type of vegetables are now available to them in villages. They have no particular liking for alcoholic drinks, but occasionally indulge in it publicly on festive occasions, as such birth of son, marriage, fairs and festivals. They used country made alcoholic drinks and did not have any prejudice against preparing at home. Now the spread of modern ideas in community and as result of constitutional benefits the community has come out of much of its backwardness and adopted food habits as in all the other Hindu Communities of the state."
History of origin-
"They believe to have migrated from Jammu to which they originally belonged four to five hundred years ago. Due to change in ruler, they migrated to different neighbouring areas. It is said that Raja Barar of Akhnoor gave them land but, owing to attacks during Sikh rule they migrated to the hills, west Punjab, Rajasthan, Punjab and Harysna. Those who stayed back became Muslims and are known as Dindaur. The local chronicles of Jammu support this view and they are stated to be the original occupants of Jammu territory before migrating Jamwal ruling clans ousted them from power and subjugated them. This according to the Jamwal Vanshavali, happened much before the Christian Era. In some details, the Megh traditions support their close connection with Jammu region since a hoary past."
Social System: Kinship-
"The community is divided into different clans like Bakarwal, Gandhi, Tindu, Chopre, Batten, Kale, Kunmunde, Gotre, Tilar, Gidar, Tilchate, Bhardwaj, Pachada, Malhotra, Singotra. They are further divided into Hindu Megh and Sikh Megh. The basis of differentiation is religious and the chief function of this class or gotras is to regulate marriage alliances. They consider themselves equal to Julaha or Kabirpanthis and superior to Chura, Chamar, Deha and other S/Cs. They are inferior to Brahman, Rajput and other caste Hindu. They are aware of the Varna System and recognize their place in it as Shudra. Others also consider them of low status as that of Julaha. Many consider them Julaha only."
Marriage and Divorce-
"They are endogamous at community level and exogamous at village, and at gotra level. The village exogamy is not strictly observed now. Earlier four gotras were avoided like that of self, mother's, paternal and maternal grandmother. But now only the self gotra is avoided. Marriages are negotiated by the elders, when the boy attains the age of around eighteen years and the girl is around sixteen years. Monogamous form of marriage are prevalent. Sindur, bindi and bangles are the symbols of marriage. Kanyadan exists and dowry is given in the form of household articles and some cash. Rule of residence is patrilocal."
"The Divorce is traditionally not allowed. The young widow and widower are allowed to remarry in case of willing and young individuals. Junior levirate and junior sororate are permissible. There is no proper marriage in this regard and is called Bethana. Change of marriage rule is observed in leaving self gotra only, increase in marriage age and non observance of marriage symbols strictly. The marriage symbols are observed only during fairs, festivals, marriages and joyous occasions and family gatherings."
"Widow marriage is permitted. But the chance is limited to the deceased's elder or younger brother, failing which, she can, with the consent of her guardian, marry any belonging to the gotra of her husband, the man must bear all the experiences of marriage, or he must give his sister or daughter or any other near relative to some male member of the widow's household in exchange. When a widow declines to remarry, provision for the necessities of her life is arranged out of contributions made by biradari of the village and she is held in high esteem.
Family-
"The megh family is patrilocal in which proper reverence and respect and affiliations are observed according to the status of all members."
Occupational Activities-
"The Meghs are primarily an agricultural community. Formerly, they were owners of the land in this tract but, because of high handedness and oppressions of the ruling tribes, most of them have been deprived of large tract of agricultural land. Till recently, the Megh families were petty landholders, but majority of them had been rendered landless, though they still stuck to the agriculture occupation and mostly work as tillers and agriculture workers. However, recent agrarian reforms in the state and also as constitutional benefits, there has been much amelioration in their economic condition. Most of their families have received small agricultural lands and have purchased additional tracts."
"The land in the Megh family is owned, as in case of other Hindu communities of the area, by the eldest male of family, and is equally shared by all the sons after the death of their father or elder. In addition to working on their own fields, they work as farm labourers and tiller of the land. They receive wages both in cash and kind according to the nature of job or agriculture operations and in rearing cattles. They mostly work in their own or nearby villages, and there is limited mobility among them. Children and women help their manfolk in agriculture operations and in rearing cattle. Children of 14 or 15 years and above are sent out to earn wages. Previously the Megh men and women worked in the houses of the village zamidars and money landers against repayment of their own or ancestral debts. A limited type of bondage labour was prevalent in this region too. But since independence, conditions have undergone much changes and this has disappeared from this region."
"By profession the Megh are largly weavers and they profess to have learnt this craft from Kabir, the bhagat. The members of community are, therefore, sometimes addressed as Bhagat and some among them write Bhagat as caste with their names. They practised this craft as a part time work, in addition to agriculture and the older among them, when weakened by age, mostly confined their activities to weaving, but, of late, they have given up this craft as the Khadi is little in demand in the villages. Now the craft is revived and power driven handloom have replaced the older, out of date manual Khaddies. Being primarily a rural community, their economic activities are conditioned by the conditions prevailing in their respective villages."

(Reference:- "Global Encyclopedia of the North Indian Dalits- Ethnography---" Volume-1, pages- 445; 446; 448)

From which date Meghs were recruited as sepoys or warriors of any army? Fredric Drew in his treaty cited previously says- "The Maharaja has done something to improve the position of these low castes in engaging ...."
Probably rather definitely it was time of Maharaja Gulab singh of Kashmir ; who recruited Meghs in his territorial army.. Megh proved themselves Brave community. Fredric Drew mentions in his book about it; like this- "These have acquired some consideration , indeed they have behaved themselves in time of war so as to get respect , having shown themselves in courage to be equal with the higher castes, and in endurance to surpass them"
It is matter of proud to megh community that they are brave sons of soil indeed and demerit imposed upon them by caste Hindus must be replied on swap footings. Pleas think upon it construct your history of courage.
विवरण को हिंदी में इस तरह से समझे-- मेघों की सेना में भर्ती कब शुरू हुई; इस पर कोई प्रमाणिक जानकारी नहीं है क्योंकि प्राचीनकाल काल में सेना का स्वरुप ऐसा संगठित नहीं था। मुगलों ने इसे संस्थागत संगठित स्वरुप दिया। अंग्रेजो का सैन्य संगठन पूरी तरह से संगठित व संस्थानिक था। मुगलों की सेना में प्रविष्टी तभी होती थी जब वह मुसलमान धर्म को स्वीकार करले। रियासतों का सैन्य संगठन तो और भी ज्याद अव्यवस्थित था।ऐसे मे किसी जातिगत सैन्य भर्ती को खोजना अँधेरे में टटोलना है। कुछ लोगों ने जानकारी चाही थी अतः जो मेरे पास प्रमाणिक उपलब्द्ध था। उसे बताया। कश्मीर के महाराजा गुलाब सिंह ने मेघों को सेना में भर्ती करने को विशेष तव्वजो दी ताकि इस जाति का स्तर ऊपर उठ सके। फ्रेडरिक ड्रियू ने इसका जिक्र अपनी पुस्तक "जम्मू एंड कश्मीर टेरिटोरीज : ए जयोग्राफिकल एकाउंट --"में किया। उसने लिखा कि मेघ लोग बाहादुरी में किसी भी उच्च हिन्दू जाति के सैनिक से कम नहीं थे। कई अवसरों पर तो वे बहादुरी साहस और दम में उनसे भी आगे थे। इससे स्पष्ट है कि सन 1850 से पहले तक उनकी सेना में भर्ती होती रही थी क्योंकि यह समय महाराजा गुलाब सिंह का है।



To Satish Bhagat.यहाँ पर आपको सैम्युल टी वेस्टन के मेघ इतिहास के बारे में व्यक्त मत का अनुवाद पेश कर रहा हूँ। कृपया संग्रहित करें। जम्मू कश्मीर में ज्यादातर मेघ आबादी पर्वतीय क्षेत्रो में रहती है। ये वर्त्तमान में पर्वतों पर नही बसे है बल्कि जब से पहाड़ी क्षेत्रों में बस्तियां बसने लगी तभी से आबाद है। आज ये एक जाति के रूप में जाने जाते है। सैमुअल टी वेस्टन लिखते है- "पर्वतों पर रहने वाले ये लोग मूलतः कौन थे? इस बारे में अत्यल्प जानकारी भी उपलब्ध नहीं है; जो इस बारे में हमारी मदद कर सके। परम्परागत मान्यता है कि ये लोग मैदानी इलाकों से आकर यहाँ बसे है। जहाँ सब कुछ अनिश्चित है;जहाँ कोई अनुमान की जोखिम उठाता तो यह असम्भाव्य नहीं लगता है कि वर्त्तमान में जो मेघ आदि जातियां है वे लोग ही यहाँ के आदि(मूल) निवासी है।--------इनकी आबादी एक चौथाई है। जो कोली----मेघ और कुछ अन्य में परिगणित है। यद्यपि वे सामाजिक स्तरीकरण मे अलग अलग है परन्तु हिन्दुओं द्वारा उन्हें बहिस्कृत(जाति बाह्य) ही मन जाता है। इन लोगों के पास अपने मूल निवास की कोई इतिहस-परंपरा भी नहीं है। जो इस अनुमान को पुष्ट करता है कि उनकों यहाँ निवास करते हुए लम्बा काल गुजर चूका है। जनरल कन्निन्घम आश्वस्त है कि किसी समय पश्चिमी हिमालय क्षेत्र मध्य भारत में बसने वाले कोल प्रजाति के समान मानव समुहो द्वारा ही आबाद था। आज भी ये बहुतायत लोग है; जो कोल; मेघ नाम धारण करते है । ये वही लोग है।" पूर्वोक्त पृष्ट58
Megh is an ethnological group formed due to following a tradition which was in contrasts or opposite to brahmanical traditional. This struggle or contrast was in their ideologies which they used to adhered and not as racial in ancient era. Due to marriages and other reasons they mixed in spite of having separate ideals. Due to power politics castes emerged as making the sacred ness of groups. Kaul now known as Brahmans of J and k are mixture of blood.. they are not pure but they adopted to follow brahmanical tradition and secure status within with the aid of marriages Anne power which megh deprived of... they are not megh but ties were there..



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Glossary of Tribes : A.S.ROSE